Human Papillomavirus (HPV)By. Morgan Craig-Williams && McKelly Timothy


Note:
My partner and I have created this wiki-space to inform the general public about Human Papillomavirus, otherwise known as HPV. We hope that this is very informative but if you have any additional questions regarding HPV call your doctor. Thanks.

hpv.jpg
Microscopic View of HPV

Background

  • HPV was discovered in 1956. It was discovered by Harald zur Hausen, the German researcher. HPV is found in all geographic regions. There were no major outbreaks in the past.

Structure

  • The viral capsid is made up of of 72 capsomeres. Each capsomere is made of 2 viral proteins, which are L1 and L2. HPV has a nucleic acid called hybridization.

Symptoms


  • HPV has over 100 different strains of virus that cause certain things. Some are high-risk, cancerous causing strains, or other types responsible for causing genital warts, which do not cause cancer, and vice versa.
  • The strains of HPV that are known to cause cervical cancer do not produce any symptoms. These types of HPV are detected through Pap smears in women. Unfortunately, there is no medical test available for men.
  • Not all strains of HPV cause cancer. Other strains of HPV can produce genital warts, which are cauliflower-like buds that occur on and around the vagina, penis, and anus.


Infection


  • It infects the cells in your cervix, anus, vagina, penis and genital area. The organelles that are involved are the mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The enzymes that are involved in HPV is HpyCH4V.
  • When the HPV gets into your system, the protein sticks to one of your cells, and inserts its genetic material. That DNA or RNA then take over your own cell’s genetic material, then it uses the cell to create more viruses, and sometimes kills the cell at the same time.
  • When your immune system notices that a cell is under attack, it tries to defend itself, and it sends a message to your body that scientist call the immune response (and your cells dying) which then makes you sick.

Transmission
  • According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Genital HPV is transmitted through sexual contact like vaginal, anal or oral intercourse.
  • It is rare, but a pregnant woman could possibly pass HPV to her baby during vaginal delivery, resulting in laryngeal papillomatosis, otherwise none as warts on the voice box.
  • Animals can’t get HPV and it is not known whether other organisms can care the virus.



Mutation?

  • The virus can sometimes change to cancer. Most of the time the number of women who has the virus goes down because they fight off the virus. HPV has mutated to p53. The virus produces a protein that stops p53 activities, after this happens uncontrolled growth of cervical cells occur. HPVs have been researched and recently scientist discovered that HPV can cause cervical carcinoma, which can lead to death.


Statistics


Picture_1.png
Picture_2.png
Picture_3.png







Fighting HPV


  • Your immune system plays a big part in fighting against HPV. Your white blood cells attack the virus. Some peoples immune system are weaker than others, for example people with HIV are more likely to get the virus and keep, possibly getting killed by it.



Treating and Preventing


  • According to the Federal Government Source for Women’s Health Information, if the person has warts they can be removed by being injected with chemicals, by freezing the warts, burning them off, or via surgery or lasers.
  • If your warts return repeatedly, the doctor may try injecting them with the drug interferon. Although treatment clears the symptoms, the virus remains in your body.
  • Abnormal Pap smears can be monitored over a period of time to see if they return to normal. But if the tests’ stay abnormal over time then you will go under cryosurgery, which will go in and freeze the infected cells, destroying them.
  • You can ultimately prevent this infection by using a condom, which would not cover the full genital area but would be more effective than not wearing a condom at all. It would also be a good to limit your sexual partners and know about your partner’s history.



Sources


  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • Federal Government Source for Women’s Health Information