Alexis Beren, Jay Smith

Herpesviridea aka Herpes

Herpes is caused by herpes simplex viruses, herpes simplex virus 1(HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2(HSV-2). Both cause outbreaks of herpes. The site of the infection categorizes herpes. Oral herpes is a visible symptom that causes the infected person to have cold sores.
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Oral herpes is the most common strain herpes. Genital herpes is the second most common. Genital herpes causes bumps and discoloration of the genital area. The bumps go away but the herpes is still there, the bumps will come back at random times. Herpes is spread to other people by having sex, or kissing someone who has herpes (only oral herpes it transmitted by kissing but you can get it from oral sex).
Herpes dates back to ancient Greece. Herpes is a Greek word that means “to creep or crawl”. This word came from how the herpes infection slowly spreads over your infected area. Shakespeare writes of a “blister plague” which historians believe is a herpes outbreak among a large population. It is unknown when or where herpes started, most physicians think it is something that started at the beginning of the human race.
There are many strains of herpes and even animals have them. Monkey herpes is the only strain known to spread to people. All herpes contain at least 74 genes. HSV-1 and HSV-2 have complex genomes. They have 2 parts the long unique region (UL) and the short unique region (US). UL has 56 viral genes while US only has 12. Here is a table to show you the genes of herpes.
The open reading frames (ORFs) of HSV-1[8][6]
Gene
Protein
Function/description
Gene
Protein
Function/description
UL1
Glycoprotein L [2]
Surface and membrane
UL38
UL38; VP19C [3]
Capsid assembly and DNA maturation
UL2
UL2 [4]
Uracil-DNA glycosylase
UL39
UL39 [5]
Ribonucleotide reductase (Large subunit)
UL3
UL3 [6]
unknown
UL40
UL40 [7]
Ribonucleotide reductase (Small subunit)
UL4
UL4 [8]
unknown
UL41
UL41; VHS [9]
Tegument protein; Virion host shutoff[9]
UL5
UL5 [10]
DNA replication
UL42
UL42 [11]
DNA polymerase processivity factor
UL6
UL6 [12]
Processing and packaging DNA
UL43
UL43 [13]
Membrane protein
UL7
UL7 [14]
Virion maturation
UL44
Glycoprotein C [15]
Surface and membrane
UL8
UL8 [16]
DNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein
UL45
UL45 [17]
Membrane protein; C-type lectin[10]
UL9
UL9 [18]
Replication origin-binding protein
UL46
VP11/12 [19]
Tegument proteins
UL10
Glycoprotein M [20]
Surface and membrane
UL47
UL47; VP13/14 [21]
Tegument protein
UL11
UL11 [22]
virion exit and secondary envelopment
UL48
VP16 (Alpha-TIF) [23]
Virion maturation; activate IEGs by interacting with the cellular transcription factors Oct-1 and HCF. Binds to the sequence 5'TAATGARAT3'.
UL12
UL12 [24]
Alkaline exonuclease
UL49
UL49A [25]
Envelope protein
UL13
UL13 [26]
Serine-threonine protein kinase
UL50
UL50 [27]
dUTP diphosphatase
UL14
UL14 [28]
Tegument protein
UL51
UL51 [29]
Tegument protein
UL15
Terminase [30]
Processing and packaging of DNA
UL52
UL52 [31]
DNA helicase/primase complex protein
UL16
UL16 [32]
Tegument protein
UL53
Glycoprotein K [33]
Surface and membrane
UL17
UL17 [34]
Processing and packaging DNA
UL54
IE63; ICP27 [35]
Transcriptional regulation
UL18
VP23 [36]
Capsid protein
UL55
UL55 [37]
Unknown
UL19
VP5 [38]
Major capsid protein
UL56
UL56 [39]
Unknown
UL20
UL20 [40]
Membrane protein
US1
ICP22; IE68 [41]
Viral replication
UL21
UL21 [42]
Tegument protein[11]
US2
US2 [43]
Unknown
UL22
Glycoprotein H [44]
Surface and membrane
US3
US3 [45]
Serine/threonine-protein kinase
UL23
Thymidine kinase [46]
Peripheral to DNA replication
US4
Glycoprotein G [47]
Surface and membrane
UL24
UL24 [48]
unknown
US5
Glycoprotein J [49]
Surface and membrane
UL25
UL25 [50]
Processing and packaging DNA
US6
Glycoprotein D [51]
Surface and membrane
UL26
P40; VP24; VP22A [52]
Capsid protein
US7
Glycoprotein I [53]
Surface and membrane
UL27
Glycoprotein B [54]
Surface and membrane
US8
Glycoprotein E [55]
Surface and membrane
UL28
ICP18.5 [56]
Processing and packaging DNA
US9
US9 [57]
Tegument protein
UL29
UL29 [58]
Major DNA-binding protein
US10
US10 [59]
Capsid/Tegument protein
UL30
DNA polymerase [60]
DNA replication
US11
US11; Vmw21 [61]
Binds DNA and RNA
UL31
UL31 [62]
Nuclear matrix protein
US12
ICP47; IE12 [63]
Inhibits MHC class I pathway by preventing binding of antigen to TAP
UL32
UL32 [64]
Envelope glycoprotein
RS1
ICP4; IE175 [65]
Activates gene transcription
UL33
UL33 [66]
Processing and packaging DNA
ICP0
ICP0; IE110; α0 [67]
E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates viral gene transcription and counteracts the interferon response
UL34
UL34 [68]
Inner nuclear membrane protein
LRP1
LRP1 [69]
Latency-related protein
UL35
VP26 [70]
Capsid protein
LRP2
LRP2 [71]
Latency-related protein
UL36
UL36 [72]
Large tegument protein
RL1
RL1; ICP34.5 [73]
Neurovirulence factor. Antagonizes PKR by de-phosphorylating eIF4a.
UL37
UL37 [74]
Capsid assembly
LAT
none [75]
Latency-associated transcript

When herpes enters the body the envelope covering the virus searches out for certain cell receptors. When they are found the envelope fuses with the cell membrane, which causes an opining for the virus. Once inside, the virus multiplies until the host cell is taken over and then spreads to more cells. Your body can’t fight of herpes because it would have to fight off its own cells.
Herpes can be treated with anti-viral medication. It can not be cured.


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Herpes Facts:

· One out of five of the total adolescent and adult population is infected with genital herpes.
· Infection is more common in women (approximately one out of four women) than in men (almost one out of five).
· Male-to-female transmission is more efficient than female-to-male transmission.
· One in five Americans have genital herpes (yet at least 80 percent of those with herpes are unaware they have it).
· About 80 percent of American adults have oral herpes (cold sores).
· An estimated 25 percent of American adults have genital herpes.
· Genital herpes affects approximately one in six Australian adults
· Approximately two-thirds of people who acquire STDs in the United States are younger than 25.1,3
· About one in five people in the United States over age 12 (approximately 45 million individuals) are infected with HSV-2, the virus that causes genital herpes.2
· According to the A.H.M.F. (Australian Herpes Management Forum) genital herpes is under-diagnosed — of people with genital herpes simplex virus infection only 1 in 5 are diagnosed and, up to 80% of cases of genital herpes are not recognized as such by clinicians.
· At least one in four Americans will contract an STD at some point in their lives.
· Up to 1 million new HSV-2 infections may be transmitted each year in the United States.1
· Costs associated with genital herpes totaled approximately $237 million in 1994.3
· Genital herpes infection also is more common among African Americans (45.9%) than among White Caucasian (17.6%).
· Since the late 1970s, the number of Americans with genital herpes infection has increased 30%.
· The largest increase of genital herpes is among young White teenagers.
· Genital herpes infection is now five times more common in 12- to 19-year-old White adolescents.
· Genital herpes is twice as common among young adults ages 20 to 29 than it was 20 years ago.

Citations:

http://std.about.com/od/treatment/f/herptreatfaq.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpes_simplex_virus

http://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/STDFact-herpes.htm

http://www.globalherbalsupplies.com/herpes/stats.html