Mumps- By Anthony Harley and Jacob McNeil

(Mononegavirales Paramyxoviridae Rubulavirus)

Picture

mumps_testis.jpg

History/Outbreaks

There are no specifics on how or where it started because of the fact that it originally started in humans. Here’s a list of some of the most recent outbreaks in the US and which year(s) they occurred in:
  • Vermont 2008
  • Iowa (2005-2006)
  • Georgia (2006)
  • Illinois (2006)
  • Indiana (2006)
  • Kansas (2006)
  • Kentucky (2006)
  • Massachusetts (2009)
  • Michigan (2006)
  • Minnesota (2006)
  • Missouri (2006)
  • Nebraska (2006)
  • North Carolina (2006)
  • Ohio (2008)
  • Oregon (2006)
  • South Dakota (2006)
  • Virginia (2006, 2008)
  • Wisconsin (2006)

Symptoms


  • Soreness or swelling of the parotid glands on one or both sides. Discomfort may range from vague tenderness to obvious pain when opening the mouth or swallowing
  • Fever, usually lasting about two to three days
  • Sore muscles
  • Loss of appetite
  • Headache
  • Earache that is aggravated by chewing
  • In men and adolescent boys, swelling in one or both testes (often subsides within four days)
  • Aversion to light, lethargy, and a stiff neck (which may indicate meningitis)
  • Upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting (which may indicate pancreatitis)
  • Lower abdominal pain in women (may indicate swelling of the ovaries, which is rare)

Definitions

  • nucleocapsid- The caspid of a virus with the enclosed nucleic acid
  • phosphoprotein- A protein that contains phosphorous(other than in a nucleic acid or phospholipid)
  • trimer- A polymer comprising of three monomer units
  • paramyxoviridae- Plural of paramyxovirus which is a type of virus.

Proteins and RNA

  • N – the nucleocapsid protein associates with genomic RNA and protects the RNA from nuclease digestion
  • P – the phosphoprotein binds to the N and L proteins and forms part of the RNA polymerase complex
  • M – the matrix protein assembles between the envelope and the nucleocapsid core, it organizes and maintains virion structure
  • F – the fusion protein projects from the envelope surface as a trimer, and mediates cell entry by inducing fusion between the viral envelope and the cell membrane by class I fusion. One of the defining characteristics of members of the paramyxoviridae family is the requirement for a neutral pH for fusogenic activity.
  • H/HN/G – the cell attachment proteins span the viral envelope and project from the surface as spikes. They bind to sialic acid on the cell surface and facilitate cell entry. Note that the receptor for measles virus is unknown. Proteins are designated H for morbilliviruses and henipaviruses as they possess haemagglutination activity, observed as an ability to cause red blood cells to clump. HN attachment proteins occur in respiroviruses and rubulaviruses. These possess both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity which cleaves sialic acid on the cell surface, preventing viral particles from reattaching to previously infected cells. Attachment proteins with neither haemagglutination nor neuraminidase activity are designated G . These occur in members of pneumovirinae.
  • L – the large protein is the catalytic subunit of RNA dependent RNA polymerase
  • Accessory proteins – a mechanism known as RNA editing allows multiple proteins to be produced from the P gene. These are not essential for replication but may aid in survival in vitro or may be involved in regulating the switch from mRNA synthesis to antigenome synthesis.

How it Spreads

It is contagious, and is spread from person-to-person through contact with respiratory created liquids like saliva from an infected person. It is only found in humans.

Mutations in Mumps

There haven’t been any major changes in the virus because it has become successful with its infections. The biggest reason why it hasn’t mutated is because there is no extreme need for a cure for it because it keeps itself from killing off those who are infected with it. I think that if it evolves it will only because of a need for immunity to a cure.

Defense against mumps

A healthy immune system can successfully fight invaders such as the virus that causes mumps. Viruses like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS, however, are not so easily dealt with. This is because the virus attacks the T cells themselves, disrupting the body's natural immune response. To combat the virus's onslaught, the immune system produces a billion new T cells every day. Unfortunately, the viruses also replicate about a billion times each day. In conclusion it is pretty easy for our body to fight off mumps but some virus's are just too much.



Sources

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mumps/ds00125

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramyxovirus

http://children.webmd.com/tc/mumps-symptoms

http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/m/mumps/symptoms.htm

http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.stru.mumpsweb/

http://www.cdc.gov

http://www.wikipedia.com/mumps

http://www.who.int