The Mumps

(Epidemic Parotitis)


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By: Amira Young & Brianna Thompson

Scientific/Common Name:

Mumps is the most common name for the virus also known as strain SBL 1, epidemic parotitis, and
respiratory syncytial virus which is the name that is used amongst scientists and people in the medical field.


Symptoms:

Although uncomfortable, mumps is usually harmless and symptoms normally
subside within ten days. Many children with mumps have no symptoms. The virus can lie dormant for 12-24 days after you have been contaminated.

- Face pain
- Swelling of parotid glands
- Testicle pain
- Scrotal swelling
- Testicle lumps
- Sore throat
- Swelling of the temples or jaws
- Headache
- Fever
-Inflammation of the testes, ovaries, and pancreas
of the brain
Microscopic Pictures:



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History/Background Information:

- When was it discovered, where, and by who?

The virus was fist mentioned by Hippocrates who observed the disease. He came to the conclusion that the virus was most commonly found in young men, who played sports, and were in close contact with others. He also noticed that woman who had the disease, which was less common then the men- seldom actually, were those who inclined to be isolated in their homes. Although Hippocrates noticed the disease he did not give the condition a name, which made it hard for other medical specialists to take after his well described teachings about the disease.
As time went by, people and doctors paid little attention to The Mumps. In Paris, France in the sixteenth century, mention of the local epidemic was recorded by Guillaume de Baillou. Although the virus was spreading rapidly, research was not conducted or studies done to confirm the breakout. Later, in 1790 a British physician named Robert Hamilton provided the first detailed scientific description of the mumps. His paper entitled "Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh" made The Mumps well known to other physicians.
The Mumps was proven to be a contagious epidemic in 1913 by two French physicians, Charles-Jean-Henri Nicolle and Ernest Alfred Conseil. Both physicians tested the virus from humans o monkey's. When the trials failed, eight years later, Martha Wollstein decided to inject the virus from a patient who had the disease, into a cat. The test inflammed the catsparotid, testes, and brain tissues. "Conclusive proof that mumps is transmitted by a filterable virus was finally obtained by two American researchers, Claude D. Johnson and Ernest William Goodpasture in 1934."

- Are there any major outbreaks?

1) There was a major outbreak of the Mumps, in Paris, France in the sixteenth century.
2) There was a major outbreak of the Mumps in the midwest U.S in 2006, due to air spread.
3) In 2004-2005 a epidemic of the Mumps took place in Iowa and Oklahoma.

Quick Fact: With a total of 1,643 confirmed cases and 315 probable cases reported by the Iowa
Department of Public Health

- Is this virus generally located in a specific geographic region?

The virus has been seen throughout the midwest during a series of years. It is also generally seen
in third world or developing countries.

- Statistics & Mortality Rates?


The mumps virus passed from human to human contact. The most common method is through respiratory droplets
i.e. sneezing or if you come in contact with something that has the infected saliva on it. The virus can
lie dormant for 12-24 days after you have been contaminated. Therefore it is very hard to distinguish how many cases
happen or have happened world wide, everyday.

Visit this
this websitefor daily updates of the Mumps cases.
Transmission:

Mumps is a contagious illness spread by coughing and sneezing or touching something infected with
the the mumps virus. Mumps transmission can occur anytime, from about 3 days prior to the onset of the
swelling of the salivary glands (parotitis) to 9 days after the onset of symptoms.

The mumps virus resides in the mucus in the nose and throat of the infected person, along with the saliva. When
that person sneezes or coughs, droplets spray into the air. The infected mucus can land in other people's noses
or throats when they breathe or put their fingers in their mouth, nose, or eyes after handling an infected surface.
The virus can infect other oragnisms, and when it does the other organisms get sick.

Virus structure/composition:


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Strand of RNA

Laboratory confirmation on respiratory syncytial virus (the mumps)
can be detected of the immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies. Also
the detection of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and a "reverse transcription"
called (RT)-PCR is found in some strands of the virus.
It was confirmed that the (RT)-PCR strand assay is rapid for mumps
diagnosis when tested. The mumps virus is enclosed in in a
protein shell or coat. This type of virus is able to function and
reproduce only if it is able to invade a cell that is already living.

It will use the cells system to replicate and multiply itself.
In the process of the invasion, the virus may disrupt and alter the host
cell's DNA. In order to reproduce and survive, the mumps virus will
invade the cell to make more viral particles and in an unhealthy human
body, will release to another cells, killing the host.

With an healthy human, the body will begin to produce antiviral proteins
interferon, which prevents the virus from spreading to other cells,
usually the affects of this is a fever.


"Mumps virus is a paramyxovirus and it has two glycoproteins, hemagglutinin-
neuraminidase (HN) and fusion. (F) protein, at its outer surface."



Details of the infection:


- Which human cells does it infect?

The Mumps virus produces and multiples in the upper respiratory tract, linking to a host cell. Once inside
it will spread along with respiratory secretions, saliva or through materials that are likely to carry infection,
such as clothes, utensils, furniture etc.

- How does infection occur?

The infection occurs when a human is exposed to the virus, through saliva, physical contact with someone or
something that is a carries of the virus, sneezing etc. The Mumps is a very contagious virus. Infection
will then move into the upper respiratory tract.

- Once the virus injects its DNA/RNA into the cell, what happens?


It will use the cells system to replicate and multiply itself.In the process of the invasion, the virus may
disrupt and alter the host cell's DNA. In order to reproduce and survive, the mumps virus willinvade the cell
to make more viral particles and in an unhealthy humanbody, will release to another cells, killing the host.


- What host cell organelles are involved?

The cell organelles that are involved are the nucleocapsids.

- What host cell enzymes are involved?



Mumps Progress

Before the creation of the mumps vaccine in 1948 mumps was the leading cause of deaf in the US. This is because once
infected with the virus it causes meningitis (an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord).
There haven't been any recent mutations in the mumps virus we've just become a lot better at preventing it.

Mumps Prevention:

To prevent yourself or family from getting the mumps is simple; there is a vaccine that is usually given to babies
called MMR that is the best prevention method. However there are a few more tips on how to protect yourself: Don't share eating utensils i.e. forks, spoons etc.; wash hands frequently with soap and water; surfaces that are touched on
the regular basis should be cleaned with soap and water as well. Surfaces include tables, toys, doorknobs etc.


Mumps Vaccination:

The most commonly used vaccination for mumps is called MMR. The shot is usually given in two doses. It is a combination of mumps, measles, and rubella viruses. They begin giving the vaccination on or after the 1st birthday of the child. The second dose is given when the child is 4-6 yrs old preferably before they start school. The vaccine is a live and weakened dose of the mumps virus. Adults who didn't receive the vaccine as children should get one dose. Adults who are at high risk for catching the mumps should receive 2. The vaccine is not to be given to women who are pregnant and people with impaired immune systems.

Sources:

http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/in-english/statistics/mumps/?y=1999#statistics-nav
http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/Mumps-Fever-Spreads-Unabated-In-US-9643-1/
http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Mumps_causes/overview/adam20?fdid=adam_ae3bf4c4c80738af66ee2e301e357344&section=Causes
http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/432/main.html#SymptomsofMumps
http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/content/full/45/9/2902