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  1. page Polio-Ashley edited Polio Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg} Polio Virus Ashley W…

    Polio Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg} Polio Virus
    Ashley Weekes
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  2. page Polio-Ashley edited ... IPV - inactivated polio vaccine OPV is made with a live but weakened virus and IPV is given b…
    ...
    IPV - inactivated polio vaccine
    OPV is made with a live but weakened virus and IPV is given by injection and protects people from the poliovirus as well, but some believe it is less sufficient than the OPV vaccination.
    Resources:Resources
    http://www.dhpe.org/infect/polio.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poliovirus#Life_cycle
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  3. page Polio-Ashley edited Polio Polio Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg} Polio Virus…

    Polio

    Polio
    Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg} Polio Virus
    Ashley Weekes
    History/Background Information
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    Polio Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg}
    Ashley Weekes
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  5. page Polio-Ashley edited Polio Polio Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg} Ashley Weeke…
    Polio
    Polio
    Virus {polio1.jpgD8CD3175-CC20-4365-990B1CAFBE417A46.jpgLarge.jpg}
    Ashley Weekes

    History/Background Information
    History/background information: When was is discovered? By who? Where? Are there anyJakob (or Jacob) von Heine, a German physician released the first medical reports describing the condition, Poliomyelitis in 1840. Karl Landsteiner identified the causative agent for poliomyelitis, the poliovirus in 1908. The first major past outbreaks? Where? Is thisoutbreak of Polio in the U.S was in 1843 in Vermont. The most recent Polio outbreak was in Nigeria. The virus is generally located with in a specific geographic region? Also provide some statistics about infection numbers,the Middle Eastern portion of the world. Places like Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan remain polio-endemic. The mortality rates, etc.rates vary according to age for polio. 2–5% of children and up to 15–30% of adults die from poliomyelitis.
    Symptoms
    Symptoms in humans infected withThere are many different types of the poliovirus. In some cases of polio the virus. Are there always symptoms orremain asymptomatic.
    The two basic types of polio infections are the minor illness and the major illness. The minor illness, which is sometimes referred to as abortive poliomyelitis
    does not affect the virus stay "dormant"central nervous system however, the major illness does and the out come can be paralytic or non-paralytic.
    Minor illness
    People with healthy immune systems normally don’t show symptoms of polio. In very rare cases the poliovirus produces symptoms, but most of them are minor symptoms similar to the flu,
    for periodsinstance:
    • Upper respiratory tract infection (sore throat and fever)
    • Gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation or, rarely, diarrhea), and influenza-like illness.
    Major illness
    About 3% of the infections enter the central nervous system. When this happen most patients develop non-paralytic aseptic meningitis with systems of headache, neck, back, abdominal and extremity pain, fever, vomiting, lethargy and irritability.
    Only 1 in 200 to 1 in 1000 cases actually end up being paralytic, in which case the muscles become weak, floppy, and poorly controlled, then finally completely paralyzed. The paralytic disease is also know as acute flaccid paralysis. Depending on where the paralysis is, paralytic poliomyelitis is categorized into three types of polio (Spinal being the most common):
    • Spinal Polio – The polio virus invades the ventral gray matter section in the spinal column, which cause inflammation of the nerve cells, leading to damage of the motor neuron ganglia.
    • Bulbar Polio – The poliovirus attacks and destroys the nerves in the bulbar portion of the brain stem.
    • Bulbospinal Polio – A combination
    of time?bulbar and spinal polio.
    How is the virus transmitted?
    Can it passThe poliovirus is easily spread through human-to-human contact. “Polio is also transmitted when bodily wastes from human to human? Are there other animals involved in its transmission? Cana person who has the disease contaminates food or water, which then is ingested by another person.” The virus can infect animals that can develop symptoms of the disease and pass it on to other organisms? Do other organisms actually get sick, or are they just carriers?living species.
    Structure/Composition
    What kind of nucleic acids does it have? WhatThe poliovirus is its coat/shell made of? What surface proteins doesup of a RNA genome and a protein capsid. The RNA is a single-stranded, positive genome. The coat consists of RNA and non-enveloped icosahedral protein.
    The poliovirus uses an immunoglobulin-like receptor to bind
    it have?and the host cell. The entry of RNA can happen in one of two ways. The RNA can “inject” itself into the host cell’s cytoplasm, which is caused by the formation of the pore in the plasma membrane or the virus is taken up by the receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    Details about infection
    Which human cells does it infect? How does infection occur? OnceThe poliovirus infects the virus injectsnerve cells. It attaches its DNA/RNA intoreceptors to the cell, what happens? What host cell organelles are involved? What host cell enzymes are involved?
    How does
    and the human body fight the virus?
    Afklafkjfajkaja;lal;dljljljglrmlmd,vm,ad;lv;allg’q’el’;gla;l;dll’;lf;al;ldl;fl;al;,c,.a,.,d.,vlkfljvssssssssssvlmsl,mmmmmmmdlkjfa;dllljjj,vmmmmmmmmms.ljfl;lsd;;;;;;;;;mv,a;ldj;aldjg;aldj;aakdfa;ajajal;djjl;ja;ldmv,a.dlfaj;oefjwpoejlf;ljdglajg;ajdl;gja;gjlajdg;owprogwpeopogfqek
    How has
    infection begins. When the virus changed over time?
    Are there documented cases of
    is inside the cell it mutating? How does this occur? What specific changes were observed and how did this affect humans or other organisms? If no mutations have been directly observed, predict what might happen ifhijacks the virus werecell’s assembly process to change inmake thousands of copies of itself. The virus kills the future.nerve cell and then spreads to infect other cells.
    {Poliovirus_life_cycle.png}
    {Picture_2.png}

    Medical Treatments
    HowThere aren’t actual treatments or cures for the poliovirus, but there are to types of vaccinations you can receive to prevent it.
    OPV - oral polio vaccine
    IPV - inactivated polio vaccine
    OPV
    is thismade with a live but weakened virus treatedand IPV is given by medical professionals? Do we have a vaccination/immunization against this virus? How can infection be prevented?injection and protects people from the poliovirus as well, but some believe it is less sufficient than the OPV vaccination.
    Resources:
    Sources: in addition to in-text hyperlinks, provide a list of all sources used.
    Be sure to make your portfolio visually appealing and easily read by the general public.
    http://www.dhpe.org/infect/polio.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poliovirus#Life_cycle
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polio
    http://www.the-aps.org/pa/animals/polio.html
    http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/poliotimeline.htm
    http://www.who.int/topics/poliomyelitis/en/
    http://www.polioeradication.org/casecount.asp

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  7. page Polio-Ashley edited Poliomyelitis By: Ashley Weekes {PolioVirus.jpg} Polio Virus History/Background Informatio…

    Poliomyelitis
    By: Ashley Weekes
    {PolioVirus.jpg}
    Polio Virus
    History/Background Information
    History/background information: When was is discovered? By who? Where? Are there any major past outbreaks? Where? Is this virus generally located in a specific geographic region? Also provide some statistics about infection numbers, mortality rates, etc.
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